M. David Merrill was listed among the most productive Educational Psychologists (Gordon, et al, Educational Researcher , Aug/Sep1984), among the most frequently cited authors in the computer-based instruction literature (Wedman, Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, Summer 1987), ranked among the most influential people in the field of Instructional Technology (Moore & Braden, Performance & Instruction, March 1988.).
Although famous for his component display theory, I prefer to focus on the following which he collaborated on with Charles Regulith. I will cover CDT at a later date. In focus in this post is:
First principles of instruction:
- Learning is promoted when instruction is in the context of whole real-world tasks.
- Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in a task-centered instructional strategy involving a progression of whole real-world tasks.
- Learning is promoted when learners activate relevant cognitive structures by being directed to recall, describe or demonstrate relevant prior knowledge or experience.
- Activation is enhanced when learners recall or acquire a structure for organizing the new knowledge, when this structure is the basis for guidance during demonstration, is the basis for coaching during application, and is a basis for reflection during integration.
- Learning is promoted when learners observe a demonstration of the skills to be learned that is consistent with the type of content being taught.
- Demonstrations are enhanced when learners are guided to relate general information or an organizing structure to specific instances.
- Demonstrations are enhanced when learners observe media that is relevant to the content and appropriately used.
- Learning is promoted when learners engage in application of their newly acquired knowledge or skill that is consistent with the type of content being taught.
- Application is effective only when learners receive intrinsic or corrective feedback.
- Application is enhanced when learners are coached and when this coaching is gradually withdrawn for each subsequent task.
- Application is enhanced when learners observe media that is appropriately used.
- Learning is promoted when learners integrate their new knowledge into their everyday life by being directed to reflect-on, discuss, or defend their new knowledge or skill.
- Integration is enhanced when learners create, invent, or explore personal ways to use their new knowledge or skill.
- Integration is enhanced when learners publicly demonstrate their new knowledge or skill.